Thursday, May 17, 2012


Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia Nervosa is when someone has frequent episodes of binge eating, usually accompanied with purging (Making yourself sick) and intense feeling of guilt or embarrassment.
 There are many different signs that people can identify are to do with Bulimia nervosa signs, such as bingeing, or eating without any control, purging by strict diet, fast, strenuous exercises, vomiting or taking too much laxatives or diuretics in an order to shed off extra pounds from the body, using the bathroom often after having meals, engrossment with body weight , depression or swigging of mood, irregular menses, developing dental issues, inflamed salivary glands, heartburn and/or bloating, facing personal or family issues with alcohol or drug in any form.

Bulimia can cause many different physical complications, things like, gastrointestinal problems including irritation in food pipe, stomach, cheek glands and throat from severe vomiting, damaged or discoloured teeth due to the stomach acids which erode enamel, lung irritation due to choking while vomiting causes food particles to lodge in lungs, causing inflammation, significant loss of bodily fluids that ultimately result in fall in the blood potassium, sodium and chloride level. This all, result in muscle spasms, general debility, irregular heartbeats and kidney issues.

Bulimia Nervosa typically begins during adolescence, and while it most often occurs in women, it also affects men. Bulimics usually feel out of control during both their bingeing and the purging episodes and afterwards suffer from intense feelings of shame, guilt and self-loathing. They are usually self conscious and they typically "binge and purge" in secret and are often successful in hiding their problem from others.

Some bulimic people have been found to often benefit significantly from therapy. You can go to therapists who are experienced at helping people with eating disorders especially bulimia nervosa. Undergoing therapy provides a boost to the individual and restores self esteem, confidence and security within, to set upon the path of recovery. Bulimia is said to affect mostly women and that too youngsters who are still in colleges. Almost 90% of them are influenced by the environmental factors as has been discussed above. So, in order to give them a feel good factor, the responsibility falls upon the shoulders of the parents, siblings and friends.

Bulimia – Physiologists point of view
There are many different physiological affects that effect people when they are suffering with bulimia or have had bulimia in the past. For example, when someone who is suffering with the disease their brain may not respond appropriately to food-induced changes in plasma because of an abnormality in the blood-brain barrier transport system; It may be that they purge so much that when they don’t the body doesn’t know what to do with the food in the stomach but remove it, and the person is just Ill anyway and ends up bringing the food back up again. People who are suffering with the mental health problem which is bulimia may have out of control feelings, they may have frequent mood changes.
It’s shown that many bulimics are usually in avoidance of others and are constantly thinking about food. Many people with an eating disorder are diagnosed by the doctors with depression and anxiety. When people first start with an eating disorder they are unable to eat with others, but the longer they have had the disorder they become more able to sit around people and eat. All people go through a time in their life where they have poor body-image, but people with bulimia are constantly thinking of the way they look, it’s always their first thought and is never not on their mind. Other bulimia side effects include difficulty conceiving a child, a larger risk of miscarriage and premature birth after conception.  

From people I know who have had bulimia have sometimes started purging for attention from friends or family. Many people have done it because of peer pressure. If everyone else is having a go at it they will. Lots of people in the media are perceived to have immaculate faces and bodies. This has given everyone who is not stereotyped as the sixe 0 is not good enough for this world and that is the main reason children and adolescence are getting more and more eating disorders.


Labour moves forward in three clear stages: First stage: when contractions gradually
open up the neck of your uterus (cervix). The first stage of labour consists of early
labour, active labour and the transitional phase. Second stage: when you push your
baby out into the world. Third stage: when you deliver the placenta.

The First Stage:

In the first stage of labour your cervix has to open so that your baby can be born. By
the end of this stage your cervix will be fully dilated, or open to about 10cm in
First, your cervix has to shorten and soften. These changes may start in late
pregnancy, before labour has begun, particularly if it’s your first baby (Murray and
Hassall 2009). Days or hours before labour starts your cervix may start to open a
little, and the mucus plug may come out. This is called a show. It looks a bit like jelly
and can be stained with blood.
Active phase of labour

As labour progresses, contractions usually become longer and more frequent.
This is when the cervix opens from 3cm or 4cm to 10cm (NCCWCH 2007: 139). The
contractions are more powerful, a contraction usually starts gradually, building up to
a peak of intensity before fading away. Contractions may come as often as every three
to four minutes and last 60 to 90 seconds. They'll feel very intense.

Transitional phase of labor

The transitional phase happens when you move from the first stage of labour
to the second, pushing stage. It often starts when your cervix is about 8cm dilated.
It ends when your cervix is fully dilated, or when you get the urge to push. The
contractions may be less frequent, but much stronger and longer lasting contractions
(Downe 2009).

The Second Stage

this is the stage of labour when women push the baby down their vagina (the birth
canal). They can feel the pressure of your baby's head between their legs. With each
contraction they may get two or three strong urges to push. You need to listen to your
body and push when you get a strong urge (NCCWCH 2007). With every push, your
baby will move through the woman’s pelvis a little... If you've had a baby before, the
second stage may only take five or 10 minutes. If this is your first baby, it may take
several hours.

The Third Stage

Contractions, that are weaker at this time, will start up again. These will make the
placenta gradually peel away from the wall of your uterus. Women may get the
urge to push again. The placenta, with the membranes of the empty bag of waters

attached, will drop to the bottom of your uterus and out through their vagina
(McDonald 2009). A midwife will examine the placenta and membranes to make
sure that nothing has been left behind. She will also feel your tummy to check
that your uterus is contracting hard to stop the bleeding from the place where the
placenta was attached.

Childbirth - Physiologists point of view

If a woman has Caesarean section she may have more worries about her birth, and

Childbirth can be an intense event and strong emotions, both positive and negative,
can be brought to the surface.

It’s show that between 70% and 80% of mothers in the United Kingdom reports
some feelings of sadness or "baby blues" after childbirth. Some women go on to
develop postpartum depression, about 10% of mothers in the UK are diagnosed with
this condition. If a woman give birth breech, or transverse it is shown that they are
traumatized by the situation, and can sometimes be put of childbirth.

If women have had Labor complications like;

malpresentation (breech birth (i.e. buttocks or feet first), face, brow, or other)

failure of descent of the fetal head through the pelvic brim or the interspinous

poor uterine contraction strength

cephalo-pelvic disproportion (CPD)

They are more likely to have ‘baby blues’ or depression afterwards, and some cases
have shows that mothers have not bonded with their own babies because of these
Women can feel lots of different things when they’ve just had a baby, but if
they feel things like, Sadness, hopelessness, low self esteem or guilt they are most
likely suffering from PPD (Postpartum Depression) Some women may have sleeping
problems, may be socially withdrawn, have low energy and be more sustainable to panic attacks.